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Adana, near the Mediterranean coast, is the largest city of southern Turkey. An agricultural and industrial center, Adana overlies a Hittite settlement that dates from 1400 BC and its history has been profoundly influenced by its location at the foot of the Taurus Mountain passes leading to the Syrian plains. Conquered by Alexander The Great in 335-334 BC, it came under the rule of the Abbasid Caliphate at the end of the 7th century AD and changed hands intermittently in the next 600 years until the establishment of the Ramazan dynasty in 1378. The Ramazan rulers retained control of local administration even after Adana was conquered by the Ottoman emperor Selim I in 1516. In 1608 Adana was reconstituted as a province under direct Ottoman administration. Adana became a provincial capital in 1867.
Adana's prosperity has long come from the fertile valleys and rivers around it, as well as its position as a bridgehead on the Anatolian trade routes. It is the center of Turkish cotton industry and manufactures textiles, cement, agricultural machinery, and vegetable oils.